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Quick Start

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This guide focuses on demonstrating how you can use Programmable Key Pairs (PKPs) to build secure, non-custodial user wallets.

PKPs are decentralized public / private key pairs generated by the Lit Network. These key pairs can be used for various use cases, but a popular way to use them is to offer wallets for your users.

The following steps will walk you through the process of creating a PKP, assigning permissions to it, and signing a transaction.

This guide uses Lit's Habanero Network, the Mainnet Beta, which is designed for application developers aiming to build production-ready applications. For those developing in a test environment, the Manzano Network is recommended. More on Lit networks here.

For developers looking to explore beyond the basics, check out Advanced Topics.

You can also view an embedded wallets demo here: https://lit-pkp-auth-demo.vercel.app/

Steps

Install and Import the Lit SDK

Ensure you have the following requirements in place:

  1. Operating System: Linux, Mac OS, or Windows.
  2. Development Environment: You'll need an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) installed. We recommend Visual Studio Code.
  3. Languages: The Lit JS SDK V4 supports JavaScript. Make sure you have the appropriate language environment set up.
  4. Internet Connection: A stable internet connection is required for installation, updates, and interacting with the Lit nodes.

Install the @lit-protocol/lit-node-client package, which can be used in both browser and Node environments:

yarn add @lit-protocol/lit-node-client

Use the Lit JS SDK V4:

import * as LitJsSdk from "@lit-protocol/lit-node-client";
note

You should use at least Node v19.9.0

  • crypto support.
  • webcrypto library support if targeting web.

Client-Side Usage

Within a file (in the Lit example repos it will likely be called lit.js), set up your Lit object.

client.connect() will return a promise that resolves when you are connected to the Lit Network.

const client = new LitJsSdk.LitNodeClient({
litNetwork: 'habanero',
});

await client.connect();
note

To avoid errors from Lit nodes due to stale sessionSigs, make sure to clear the local storage for sessionSigs before reconnecting or restarting the client. One way to do this is to disconnect the client first and then reconnect.

The client listens to network state, and those listeners will keep your client running until you explicitly disconnect from the Lit network. To stop the client listeners and allow the browser to disconnect gracefully, call:

await client.disconnect();

Server-Side Usage

In this example stub, the litNodeClient is stored in a global variable app.locals.litNodeClient so that it can be used throughout the server. app.locals is provided by Express for this purpose. You may have to use what your own server framework provides for this purpose, instead.

note

Keep in mind that in the server-side implementation, the client class is named LitNodeClientNodeJs.

app.locals.litNodeClient.connect() returns a promise that resolves when you are connected to the Lit network.

app.locals.litNodeClient = new LitJsSdk.LitNodeClientNodeJs({
alertWhenUnauthorized: false,
litNetwork: 'habanero',
});
await app.locals.litNodeClient.connect();

The litNodeClient listens to network state, and those listeners will keep your Node.js process running until you explicitly disconnect from the Lit network. To stop the litNodeClient listeners and allow node to exit gracefully, call: 

await app.locals.litNodeClient.disconnect();

Install the Required Packages

yarn add @lit-protocol/contracts-sdk
yarn add @lit-protocol/lit-auth-client

Set up a controller wallet

To initialize a LitContracts client you need an Ethereum Signer. This can be a standard Ethereum wallet (ethers) or a PKP (more info on the latter here). Here, we're going to use a standard Ethereum wallet.

Initialize the contracts-sdk

import { LitContracts } from '@lit-protocol/contracts-sdk';

const contractClient = new LitContracts({
signer: wallet,
network: 'habanero',
});

await contractClient.connect();
note

You’ll need to ensure you have some test tokens to pay for gas fees. You can claim test tokens from our verified faucet: https://faucet.litprotocol.com/

Authenticate with the Lit Network

In order to interact with the nodes in the Lit Network, you will need to generate and present signatures. You can do this by generating a 'Session Sig'. Any signature compliant with EIP-4361 (also known as Sign in with Ethereum (SIWE)) cam be used for this.

Obtaining a SessionSigs in the browser

Using the Lit SDK and the methods createSiweMessageWithRecaps and generateAuthSig from the @lit-protocol/auth-helpers package, we can create a SessionSigs by signing a SIWE message using a private key stored in a browser wallet like MetaMask:

const provider = new ethers.providers.Web3Provider(window.ethereum);
await provider.send("eth_requestAccounts", []);
const ethersSigner = provider.getSigner();

const litNodeClient = new LitNodeClient({
litNetwork: "habanero",
});
await litNodeClient.connect();

const sessionSigs = await litNodeClient.getSessionSigs({
chain: "ethereum",
expiration: new Date(Date.now() + 1000 * 60 * 60 * 24).toISOString(), // 24 hours
resourceAbilityRequests: [
{
resource: new LitActionResource("*"),
ability: LitAbility.LitActionExecution,
},
],
authNeededCallback: async ({ resourceAbilityRequests, expiration, uri }) => {
const toSign = await createSiweMessageWithRecaps({
uri,
expiration,
resources: resourceAbilityRequests,
walletAddress: await ethersSigner.getAddress(),
nonce: await litNodeClient.getLatestBlockhash(),
litNodeClient,
});

return await generateAuthSig({
signer: ethersSigner,
toSign,
});
},
});
note

Be sure to use the latest blockhash from the litNodeClient as the nonce. You can get it from the litNodeClient.getLatestBlockhash().

Obtaining an Session Signature on the server-side

If you want to obtain an Session Signature on the server-side, you can instantiate an ethers.Signer to sign a SIWE message, which will produce a signature that can be used in an Session Signature object.

note

The nonce should be the latest Ethereum blockhash returned by the nodes during the handshake

const LitJsSdk = require('@lit-protocol/lit-node-client-nodejs');
const { ethers } = require("ethers");
const siwe = require('siwe');

let nonce = await litNodeClient.getLatestBlockhash();

// Initialize the signer
const wallet = new ethers.Wallet('<Your private key>');
const address = ethers.getAddress(await wallet.getAddress());

// Craft the SIWE message
const domain = 'localhost';
const origin = 'https://localhost/login';
const statement =
'This is a test statement. You can put anything you want here.';

// expiration time in ISO 8601 format. This is 7 days in the future, calculated in milliseconds
const expirationTime = new Date(
Date.now() + 1000 * 60 * 60 * 24 * 7 * 10000
).toISOString();

const siweMessage = new siwe.SiweMessage({
domain,
address: address,
statement,
uri: origin,
version: '1',
chainId: 1,
nonce,
expirationTime,
});
const messageToSign = siweMessage.prepareMessage();

// Sign the message and format the authSig
const signature = await wallet.signMessage(messageToSign);

const authSig = {
sig: signature,
derivedVia: 'web3.eth.personal.sign',
signedMessage: messageToSign,
address: address,
};

console.log(authSig);

// Form the authNeededCallback to create a session with
// the wallet signature.
const authNeededCallback = async (params) => {
const response = await client.signSessionKey({
statement: params.statement,
authMethods: [
{
authMethodType: 1,
// use the authSig created above to authenticate
// allowing the pkp to sign on behalf.
accessToken: JSON.stringify(authSig),
},
],
pkpPublicKey: `<your pkp public key>`,
expiration: params.expiration,
resources: params.resources,
chainId: 1,
});
return response.authSig;
};

// Set resources to allow for signing of any message.
const resourceAbilities = [
{
resource: new LitActionResource('*'),
ability: LitAbility.PKPSigning,
},
];
// Get the session key for the session signing request
// will be accessed from local storage or created just in time.
const sessionKeyPair = client.getSessionKey();

// Request a session with the callback to sign
// with an EOA wallet from the custom auth needed callback created above.
const sessionSigs = await client.getSessionSigs({
chain: "ethereum",
expiration: new Date(Date.now() + 60_000 * 60).toISOString(),
resourceAbilityRequests: resourceAbilities,
authNeededCallback,
});

Mint a PKP and Add Permitted Scopes

Now that we have installed all of the required packages and authenticated with the Lit nodes we will mint a PKP and set its permitted scopes using the contracts-sdk.

Permitted scopes are a crucial part of defining the capabilities of each authentication method you use. They determine what actions a given authentication method can perform with the PKP. For instance, the SignAnything scope allows an auth method to sign any data, while the PersonalSign scope restricts it to signing messages using the EIP-191 scheme.

You can also set scopes: [] which will mean that the auth method can only be used for authentication, but not authorization. This means that the auth method can be used to prove that the user is who they say they are, but cannot be used to sign transactions or messages. You can read more about Auth Method scopes here.

The following code block demonstrates how to mint a PKP with specific permitted scopes:

note

The PKP NFT represents root ownership of the key pair. The NFT owner can grant other users (via a wallet address) or Lit Actions the ability to use the PKP to sign transactions or assign additional authentication methods.

import { AuthMethodScope, AuthMethodType } from '@lit-protocol/constants';

const authMethod = {
authMethodType: AuthMethodType.EthWallet,
accessToken: JSON.stringify(authSig),
};

const mintInfo = await contractClient.mintWithAuth({
authMethod: authMethod,
scopes: [
// AuthMethodScope.NoPermissions,
AuthMethodScope.SignAnything,
AuthMethodScope.PersonalSign
],
});

// output:
{
pkp: {
tokenId: string;
publicKey: string;
ethAddress: string;
};
tx: ethers.ContractReceipt;
}

You should now have successfully minted a PKP! You can verify that the PKP has the necessary permissions for signing by calling the following function:

import { LitAuthClient } from '@lit-protocol/lit-auth-client';

const authId = await LitAuthClient.getAuthIdByAuthMethod(authMethod);
await contractClient.pkpPermissionsContract.read.getPermittedAuthMethodScopes(
mintInfo.pkp.tokenId,
AuthMethodType.EthWallet,
authId,
3
);

const signAnythingScope = scopes[1];
const personalSignScope = scopes[2];

Additional Demos:

  1. Minting a PKP with an auth method and permitted scopes (Easy)
  2. Minting a PKP with an auth method and permitted scopes (Advanced)
  3. Minting a PKP using social login

Mint Capacity Credits and Delegate Usage

In order to execute a transaction with Lit, you’ll need to reserve capacity on the network using Capacity Credits. These allow holders to reserve a set number of requests (requests per second) over a desired period of time (i.e. one week). You can mint a Capacity Credit NFT using the contracts-sdk in a couple of easy steps.

The first step is to initialize a signer. This should be a wallet controlled by your application and the same wallet you’ll use to mint the Capacity Credit NFT:

const walletWithCapacityCredit = new Wallet("<your private key or mnemonic>");

let contractClient = new LitContracts({
signer: dAppOwnerWallet,
network: 'habanero',
});

await contractClient.connect();

After you’ve set your wallet, your next step is to mint the NFT:

// this identifier will be used in delegation requests. 
const { capacityTokenIdStr } = await contractClient.mintCapacityCreditsNFT({
requestsPerKilosecond: 80,
// requestsPerDay: 14400,
// requestsPerSecond: 10,
daysUntilUTCMidnightExpiration: 2,
});

In the above example, we are configuring 2 properties:

  • requestsPerDay - How many requests can be sent in a 24 hour period.
  • daysUntilUTCMidnightExpiration - The number of days until the nft will expire. expiration will occur at UTC Midnight of the day specified.

Once you mint your NFT you will be able to send X many requests per day where X is the number specified in requestsPerDay. Once the Capacity Credit is minted the tokenId can be used in delegation requests.

Delegate usage to your PKP

Once you have minted a Capacity Credits NFT, you can delegate usage of it to the PKP we minted earlier. This will allow that PKP to make requests to the Lit network.

const { capacityDelegationAuthSig } =
await litNodeClient.createCapacityDelegationAuthSig({
uses: '1',
signer: wallet,
capacityTokenId: capacityTokenIdStr,
delegateeAddresses: [secondWalletPKPInfo.ethAddress],
});

To delegate your Rate Limit NFT there are 4 properties to configure:

  • uses - How many times the delegation may be used
  • dAppOwnerWallet - The owner of the wallet as an ethers Wallet instance
  • capacityTokenId - The token identifier of the Rate Limit NFT
  • delegateeAddresses - The wallet addresses which will be delegated to
note

The delegateeAddress parameter is optional. If omitted, anyone can use your capacityDelegationAuthSig to use your app without restrictions. In this case, you can utilize other restrictions like the uses param to limit the amount of usage by your users.

Using a delegated AuthSig from a backend

If using a mainnet in order to keep the wallet which holds the Capacity Credit NFT secure it is recommended to call createCapacityDelegationAuthSig from LitNodeClient in a backend context. There are a few recommended web servers you can use in order to host an api endpoint which can return the capacityDelegationAuthSig . Some links are provided below to help get started:

Generating a Session Signature from the Capacity Credit delegation

We can use the Capacity Credit delegation to generate a Session Signature for the PKP:

    const pkpAuthNeededCallback = async ({
expiration,
resources,
resourceAbilityRequests,
}) => {
// -- validate
if (!expiration) {
throw new Error('expiration is required');
}

if (!resources) {
throw new Error('resources is required');
}

if (!resourceAbilityRequests) {
throw new Error('resourceAbilityRequests is required');
}

const response = await litNodeClient.signSessionKey({
statement: 'Some custom statement.',
authMethods: [secondWalletControllerAuthMethod], // authMethods for signing the sessionSigs
pkpPublicKey: secondWalletPKPInfo.publicKey, // public key of the wallet which is delegated
expiration: expiration,
resources: resources,
chainId: 1,

// optional (this would use normal siwe lib, without it, it would use lit-siwe)
resourceAbilityRequests: resourceAbilityRequests,
});

console.log('response:', response);

return response.authSig;
};

const pkpSessionSigs = await litNodeClient.getSessionSigs({
pkpPublicKey: secondWalletPKPInfo.publicKey, // public key of the wallet which is delegated
expiration: new Date(Date.now() + 1000 * 60 * 60 * 24).toISOString(), // 24 hours
chain: 'ethereum',
resourceAbilityRequests: [
{
resource: new LitPKPResource('*'),
ability: LitAbility.PKPSigning,
},
],
authNeededCallback: pkpAuthNeededCallback,
capacityDelegationAuthSig, // here is where we add the delegation to our session request
});

console.log("generated session with delegation ", pkpSessionSigs);

const res = await litNodeClient.executeJs({
sessionSigs: pkpSessionSigs,
code: `(async () => {
const sigShare = await LitActions.signEcdsa({
toSign: dataToSign,
publicKey,
sigName: "sig",
});
})();`,
authMethods: [],
jsParams: { // parameters to js function above
dataToSign: ethers.utils.arrayify(
ethers.utils.keccak256([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
),
publicKey: secondWalletPKPInfo.publicKey,
},
});

console.log("signature result ", res);

Managing Authentication Methods

Authentication methods ('auth methods' for short) are the specific credentials (i.e. a wallet address or email account) that have permission to control and manage permissions associated with the underlying PKP (for example, to add another auth method or sign a transaction).

To manage the auth methods registered to a Programmabale Key Pair you will need to use the LitContracts package that we installed earlier. Once that has been installed, you can add an auth method in the following steps:

If a Programmable Key Pair owns itself through the sendPkpToIteself flag you will need to use an instance of the PkpEthersWallet as the signer in the LitContracts constructor options:

import { LitContracts } from "@lit-protocol/contracts-sdk";

const litContracts = new LitContracts({
signer: pkpWallet, // pkp wallet of the owner of the pkp NFT
});
await litContracts.connect();

If the NFT was not sent to the PKP then you may use the wallet which minted the PKP :

import { LitContracts } from "@lit-protocol/contracts-sdk";
import { ethers } from 'ethers';
const provider = new ethers.providers.JsonRpcProvider(
"https://chain-rpc.litprotocol.com/http"
);
const wallet = new ethers.Wallet('<Your private key>', provider);
const litContracts = new LitContracts({
signer: wallet, // pkp wallet of the owner of the pkp NFT
});
await litContracts.connect();

Adding an Auth Method

Modifying AuthMethods for a given PKP may be done through the PKPPermissions Contract below is an example of adding and auth method to an existing PKP and giving it a scope of 1 for sign anything.

const transaction =
await litContracts.pkpPermissionsContract.write.addPermittedAuthMethod(
"<The token ID of the PKP you want to add an auth method to>",
"<The auth method object you want to add>",
[BigNumber.from(1)], // 1 is the permission for arbitrary signing
{ gasPrice: utils.parseUnits("0.001", "gwei"), gasLimit: 400000 }
);
const result = await transaction.wait();

Sign a Transaction

Lit Action Signing

You can use Lit Actions to sign transactions. These are JavaScript programs that can be used to specify the signing and authentication logic for PKPs.

To sign a Lit Action with your PKP, we'll use the litNodeClient to call the executeJs parameter.

note

toSign data is required to be in 32 byte format.

The ethers.utils.arrayify(ethers.utils.keccak256(...) can be used to convert the toSign data to the correct format.

Set up the Lit Action code to be run on the Lit nodes like so:

const litActionCode = `
const go = async () => {
// The params toSign, publicKey, sigName are passed from the jsParams fields and are available here
const sigShare = await Lit.Actions.signEcdsa({ toSign, publicKey, sigName });
};

go();
`;

const signatures = await litNodeClient.executeJs({
code: litActionCode,
authSig,
jsParams: {
toSign: [84, 104, 105, 115, 32, 109, 101, 115, 115, 97, 103, 101, 32, 105, 115, 32, 101, 120, 97, 99, 116, 108, 121, 32, 51, 50, 32, 98, 121, 116, 101, 115],
publicKey: mintInfo.pkp.publicKey,
sigName: "sig1",
},
});

console.log("signatures: ", signatures);

You can also use the ipfsId param if you’d prefer to store your Lit Action code on IPFS.

The ipfs ID: QmRwN9GKHvCn4Vk7biqtr6adjXMs7PzzYPCzNCRjPFiDjm contains the same code as the "litActionCode" variable above. You can check out the full code here.

const signatures = await litNodeClient.executeJs({
ipfsId: "QmRwN9GKHvCn4Vk7biqtr6adjXMs7PzzYPCzNCRjPFiDjm",
authSig,
jsParams: {
toSign: [84, 104, 105, 115, 32, 109, 101, 115, 115, 97, 103, 101, 32, 105, 115, 32, 101, 120, 97, 99, 116, 108, 121, 32, 51, 50, 32, 98, 121, 116, 101, 115],
publicKey: mintInfo.pkp.publicKey,
sigName: "sig1",
},
});

Learn More

By now you should have successfully minted a PKP, assigned an auth method and permitted scopes, and used it to sign a message with a Lit Action. If you’d like to learn more about all of the available functionality provided by PKPs, please follow the links below:

  1. Managing PKP Auth Methods.
  2. Minting PKPs with Social Auth.
  3. Running Custom Authentication.
  4. Connecting PKPs to dApps with WalletConnect.
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